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A brief introduction to lithium battery electrolyte

September 9, 2022

Latest company news about A brief introduction to lithium battery electrolyte

A brief introduction to lithium battery electrolyte
Lithium battery electrolyte is the carrier of ion transport in the battery. Generally composed of lithium salts and organic solvents. The electrolyte plays the role of conducting ions between the positive and negative electrodes of the lithium battery, which is the guarantee for the lithium ion battery to obtain the advantages of high voltage and high specific energy. The electrolyte is generally prepared from high-purity organic solvents, electrolyte lithium salts, necessary additives and other raw materials under certain conditions and in a certain proportion.

As the main part of the electrolyte, organic solvents are mainly divided into cyclic carbonate organic solvents, chain carbonate organic solvents, ether organic solvents and carboxylic acid organic solvents according to their different structures. Cyclic types include ethylene carbonate (EC) and propylene carbonate (PC). Compared with PC, EC has higher chemical stability, higher relative dielectric constant, better cycle performance, and a relatively wide range of applications; chain Forms include dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl carbonate (DEC) and ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), etc. Among them, DMC has strong solubility, has a significant effect on improving the conductivity of lithium batteries, and has good low-temperature charge and discharge performance. Low cost, is the most frequently used organic solvent in electrolyte.

The ether organic solvent has low dielectric constant and low viscosity, which can effectively improve the conductivity of the electrolyte. However, due to its active nature and poor oxidation resistance, it is rarely used. Under normal circumstances, it is difficult for a single solvent to meet the performance requirements of lithium batteries, and two or even more solvents need to be mixed for use. (To sum up: that is to say, EC and DMC are more widely used, and DMC is more core.)

DMC is at the heart of the solvent
The production of chain carbonate requires priority to produce DMC, and then synthesize DEC and EMC from DMC, with a mass-to-unit consumption ratio of about 1.1:1. Therefore, the proportion of DMC in the electrolyte solvent is relatively high, and the pure DMC is about 60%-70%. There are four kinds of DMC production processes: ethylene oxide method, propylene oxide method, urea alcoholysis method and methanol oxidative carbonylation method. Among them, the transesterification method is the current mainstream DMC production process, which can be divided into propylene oxide method and ethylene oxide method. (To produce chain carbonate, DMC must be obtained before dec and emc can be obtained)

latest company news about A brief introduction to lithium battery electrolyte  0
CFI summarizes several characteristics of the solvent:
1. The ring shape and the chain shape must be used together in the electrolyte. The ring shape is 2 letters and the chain shape is 3 letters.

2. The cyclic pc and ec are the previous process of the chain dmc. The propylene oxide method is now the main process of carbonate.

3. Dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is divided into two categories according to the purity: industrial grade (99.9%) and battery grade (above 99.999%). Due to the high requirements in terms of technology, mainstream electrolyte manufacturers will take a long certification cycle to ensure product quality, and customers are more sticky.
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